How Are New Dog Breeds Created?


I love dogs, I’ve always loved dogs. But
there’s always the debate… purebred or mutt? It’s a great year to be a dog lover! Apparently
7 new dog breeds will be shown at the Westminster dog show! I don’t know about you, but dog
shows… give me mixed feels. On a personal level, PUUPPIES, but the science part of me
wants to know, why are there so many different dog breeds and is that good for the species? I mean domesticated dogs might have been around
for 40,000 years and all pretty much looked like wolves. But the few hundred dog breeds
we know and love today, have only been around for a couple of hundred years at the most.
Humans tinkered with dogs, selecting for temperament or physical traits. Things like distinguishing
markings, the color of a coat and other physical features like head and body shape. A new dog breed has to meet very specific
requirements to qualify as an official breed. Many organizations like the American Kennel
Club demand proof that every dog used to make the new breed was a certified purebred. And
in many cases, breeders need to get their dogs DNA and genotype tested to show a “an
acceptable DNA variation sample for the breed”. Since 2003, researchers have been able to
see exactly what that genetic pool looks like thanks to an effort lead by Ewen Kirkness
at The Institute for Genome Research which sequenced the dog genome. They also studied the genomes of different
breeds. And not surprisingly they found that the variation of genes was greater between
dogs of different breeds than they were within the same breed. So, a black lab and a golden
lab will have less variation than a black lab and a bulldog. But what’s interesting
is that variation can be as much as 27.5 percent between dogs of different breeds, even though
essentially, they are the same species. Now compare that to humans who only have a genetic
variation of 5.4 percent. When humans mess with dog’s shape and coloring,
they are actually messing with their genes. Like size is pretty much controlled by one
gene on chromosome 15 called insulin-like growth factor-1. (IGF1), which is known to
influence body size in humans and mice. But it’s mutation can be found in a lot of unrelated
smaller breeds, suggesting it’s ancient. Even though it’s a few thousand years old,
it’s a change that still happened faster than it would happen naturally. So all the
tinkering humans do to dog breeds, dramatically changes dog’s genes faster than nature would. With all that genetic tinkering, some weird
stuff happened. Not surprisingly, breeding for aesthetic purposes has some.. unintended
consequences. Like pug encephalitis and hip problems in German shepherds. And one study
in PLOS One found that changing a dog’s face, changes their brains too. In dogs with
short snouts, their brains have rotated 15 degrees backwards and the smell region in
their brain is in a completely different place from other breeds. And these kinds of brain
changes are common in other dogs too. Another study also published in PLOS One found
that Chiari malformation in dogs actually changes their skull and brain formation. It’s
a physical defect that occurs in a lot of small dogs that are bred to look more “doll
like”. It basically makes the forehead bigger but also changes the brain shape. It can cause
chronic conditions like headaches, problems with walking or even paralysis. One of the
lead authors of the study Clare Rusbridge, described the condition “as trying to fit
a big foot into a small shoe.” Which just sounds utterly painful. The physical defects caused by inbreeding
is a huge problem and it’s one of the reasons why some breeders are calling for stricter
regulations and practices. Thankfully there are responsible breeders who are using genetic
science to ensure they are breeding to maintain genetic diversity, resulting in new breeds
that are both healthy and happy. While we’ve bred dogs to be stronger, smaller,
or even more docile, they all come from a wolf like ancestor thousands of years ago.
At some point, dogs evolved to become man’s best friend? When did this take place? So what’s your fav dog breed? Mine’s a
mutt.

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100 Responses

  1. Killer Memestar says:

    I wanna f**k her throat

  2. Whitney f says:

    Stop moving your hands so much, It's distracting.

  3. Little Yiyi says:

    Why dogs have morebreeds than cats?

  4. The Merr, Roo2U & Yasha too says:

    I like the dog Kind the best:)

  5. username1nmillion says:

    +Seeker 1st of I have to correct you Julia at 3:48 – Foxes are NOT related to the dog or the wolf. Foxes are a member of the "cat" or Feline family. Strange I know. My favorite breed of dog that I recommend to ANYONE is called the kelpie. Which stars in two movies made in Australia – "Red Dog" and "Red Dog -true blue". The American Kennel Club stupidly doesn't classify the Kelpie as a dog breed. IT IS what else would you call it, a fish?

  6. Cavy wolf Lover36 says:

    My 3 fav dog breeds are mutts, yellow labs and the all adorable Cavalier King Charles spaniel😍😍😍

  7. Jason Gonzalez says:

    I'm all about Mutts! But don't demonized breed specific breeds!!

  8. aLERNO says:

    LET DOGS MATE WHOEVER THEY WANT!!!

    Stop this aesthetic, man-serving, selecting breeding.

    Let's focus instead in inbreeding humans who don't elect politicians who kill our nature.

  9. Panic! At The Corgi says:

    My English pointer was somehow bred to be half the size of a normal pointer.

  10. Nikki Boo says:

    Why are people so fucking stupid

  11. Hypo says:

    I have a puppy whose mom is a long white hair dog and dad is a half Chihuahua and we don't know the rest. The puppy has a short white coat with one spot on it back it also has spots under it's fur, nose, and eyes. She was born with 2 deformed feet.

  12. Kazeru Kai says:

    Breeding pokemons for competitive play be like

  13. Manny More says:

    nice B cups

  14. alice hazel says:

    0:40 not true – there are some dog breeds that have been around for thousands of years, like my samoyed!

  15. Ren Gogo says:

    MUTTS

  16. Shubham Gawde says:

    Siberian husky

  17. Shubham Gawde says:

    Keep huskies isolated.

  18. Jasmine Diamond says:

    Mutt

  19. Yukino Neno says:

    I can make a new dog breed because my dog is a mix so if i had the 2 pure bred versions of what my dog is and did it 3 times i would have a new breed boom

  20. sushimagushi2 says:

    Both of my  current dogs are purebreds, a Toy Poodle and an English Cocker Spaniel..

  21. Colleen .S says:

    My mom breeds shar peis and there are so many different colors i wish i could breed a shar pei with another color but i cant even imagine how many dogs i would need for that

  22. Eric john Roca says:

    Can we do a review with German Shepherd dogs and Blue bay Shepherd..Thanks…

  23. Tahir Ahmed says:

    Retrivere i like most and thank so much for your nice information about dogs origin

  24. Aidan Nottke says:

    I like your shirt do you even science bro

  25. speed record says:

    your porn

  26. silvester rodriguez says:

    Boxers

  27. DanTe says:

    if their brains change, will their behaviour change as well?

  28. gadon says:

    So….was it done in the lab?

  29. Wafflecosplay1227 says:

    Mutt I don't care about breeds as long as they are my best friends

  30. TheNotoriousCheeto says:

    I had an idea for a new breed I wanted to create. Too bad I turned out to be allergic. I even have to wash my hands after petting them, or I break out in hives.

  31. Tobie Stevens says:

    All

  32. One Sick Chick says:

    Please forgive me for being the pronunciation police, but it’s called a Chiari Malformation, with the “Ch” pronounced like a “K” (Ki-ari)… I should know because I also have one. The drastic rise in human Chiari diagnoses over the past several years has been credited to the MRI and its ever increasing resolution quality. I’ll try & explain it in as simple terms as I can: basically the vault at the base of my skull which holds the cerebellum formed too small (a birth defect called a neural tube defect and related to Spina Bifida), so part of my cerebellum herniates (or gets crammed) down into my spinal canal, which disrupts the flow of spinal fluid. Often when this disruption happens it causes a lifetime of damage, pain & even permanent disability (as in my case). In my case, the disruption in flow of spinal fluid caused a cyst or cavity to form in my actual spinal cord from T5-T8 (a secondary condition called Syringomyelia), which then caused scoliosis. I now also have damage to my optic nerve from bouts with hydrocephalus or increased intracranial pressures as well as other related damage. Sadly, the only real fix is brain surgery, but it’s not guaranteed to help and many people end up worse off with complications because it’s such a highly invasive surgery. I believe I heard somewhere that Chiari in dogs is most common in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels. Not sure why, but likely the way they were bred and the unique positioning of their brain & skull.

  33. CLASSIC GENTLEMEN says:

    Why is getting a damn dog so god damb complicated jesus crist i just want a fucking dog to spend time with

  34. Siddharth U says:

    Mixed breed all the way!!

  35. Extra Edgy Otter says:

    What I'm interested in is extinct dog breeds! Although mutts are wonderful and I have two my self, there's some extinct breeds I just find so interesting! It's such a shame that such gorgeous and important breeds have went extinct! Including the breed the closely related to the Golden Retriever!

  36. Maggie Johnson says:

    golden lab lmao

  37. Harry 8642 says:

    I got a German Shepard cross Rottweiler, she's got such a good temperament and is very intelligent and loving, also naturally protective, if a dog barks at me she will spike up and growl 😉

  38. Michelle Turner says:

    Most breeds are not new. These new breeds are mostly ancient breeds from other parts of the world. Shut up about something you know nothing about.

  39. Bonbon C says:

    The only thing that matters to me is healthy and loving!

  40. Greenball Science says:

    #Chihuhuasquad

  41. DollyBear X says:

    People say a mixed breed is healthier, but not necessarily!
    For example if you cross a border collie with a Labrador, as this conception is believed, people don't health test their dogs, the puppy could get hip dysplasia.
    However, if you're breeding two labs together, you'll most likely health test them, resulting in a healthier puppies!

    Also, you said Golden lab, that's a yellow lab! A golden lab isn't a thing, and a golden retriever X lab is called a Goldador, so no, a golden lab isn't a thing at all!

  42. Caona Bullys says:

    We are building the Caona Bully

  43. Andrey Pavlov says:

    I like healthy dogs that look not too far from wolves. Labs, German Sheppard, etc. Small dogs are unhealthy, weird dogs with too much skin and short noses are very unhealthy.

  44. Damien Mulligan says:

    Mines a German shepard

  45. Sebastian Brooks-Baker says:

    Mutt!

  46. balaji hustler says:

    wow her neck <3

  47. Disney girl 30 Gwilt says:

    English Springer Spaniels, Labradors, Golden's, and Labrador mixes.

  48. Lu Han says:

    Hey guys, we are making an animal’s right short film about a cute little pug named Buddy that faced SELECTIVE BREEDING. It’s called *MAN’S BEST FRIEND* and it has two Emmy Award winner in it and it’s gonna be the first animal’s right short film ever to be shot in 3D. You guys should check out the story here: https://igg.me/at/MANSBESTFRIEND-2018 (https://igg.me/at/MANSBESTFRIEND-2018)

  49. Sprite Pepsi says:

    God i hate the word mutt it sounds like your trying to call a female dog well… Yeah the word but its stupid and sounds rude in my opinion but as everyone has one we all have our own so dont you make that snotty remark barbra or you mike YES EVEN YOU MARY!

  50. blackchang1981 says:

    German Shepherd.

  51. Mike zzz says:

    I stared at SCIENCE the whole time

  52. Paige Fink says:

    The 7 "new" breeds you mentioned at the beginning aren't new. They've been around for many, many years. They just weren't registered by the AKC. They were registered in other countries and you could show them in the miscellaneous group or at UKC. They didn't just create "new" breeds as those take years to develop. Also, why do you have mixed feelings about dog shows? Dog shows have nothing to do with how breeds were created. They have changed how SOME breeds have evolved. Some haven't changed much. For example, the AKC English Setter breed standard hasn't changed since 1909.

  53. Rajnish Ravidas says:

    German shepherd dog I like….

  54. lee jay Funk says:

    Proof of Creation!-)

  55. Lanie Catanzaro says:

    Mine is rescued mutt

  56. Cgoo Last says:

    "inbreeding"? How did we got dog #3, 4, 5? The problem is breeding to emphasize traits that are not desirable.

  57. Tiffany Anders says:

    What about a small foot in a big shoe

  58. Iman Hakim says:

    Samoyed

  59. Forgan Mreeman says:

    2:25 i was hoping they'd go over how a breeder is able to choose things they want in their dog. like snout size, coat color, etc. how are they doing this?

  60. dawnlightening says:

    "A new dog breed has to meet very specific requirements to qualify as an official breed. Many organizations like the American Kennel Club demand proof that every dog used to make the new breed was a certified purebred."

    One would have to be a mutt to give any importance to such organizations. The Pomeranian was created in 1764, the German Pinscher dates back to at least 1780, the Old English Sheepdog dates back to at least 1771 and so on. The American Kennel Club only goes back to 1884. The orgins of most dog breeds are considerably older than the AKC. Very few of these have purebred certification (people at that time were more concerned with successfully breeding desirable characteristics into the dogs than in pomp & ceremony). So, presumably the AKC don't consider these to be separate breeds. Shows just how stupid the AKC are. And even more stupid are the idiots who defer to their opinion.

  61. Johannes says:

    Hmmmmm let's make a wolf and a fox have sex and that "wox" will have sex with a fox again and boom you have a "super wox" then just breed "super woxes" with each other. Then make them super friendly over years, boom tiny dowgie. Will work 10/10 IGN

  62. News that matter says:

    Americans don't seem to understand that a pitbull terrier will always retain that unpredictable aggression due to breeding. No amount of traing will correct that. More than 90% percent of all dog attacks in 2018 have been from out ills and all deaths have been from pitbulls. It's not the owners. It's the dog.

  63. Stephano says:

    Mutt. Obviously.

  64. Incongnito Militant says:

    Wrong dna analysis shows dog existed for hundreds of thousands of years.

  65. Incongnito Militant says:

    There not decents of grey wolves, but some unknown canids or canids.

  66. The Azsa Show says:

    GSD

  67. James 420 says:

    Pure breeding is inbreeding you’d think people would pay $2,000 for a healthy cute dog but instead they pay it for a cute dog with a bunch of health problems. I feel bad for my Lhasa apso I don’t think she’s 100% purebred she’s not akc registered but she’s definitely like 80-90% Lhasa apso. But anyways I feel bad that she’s so small she doesn’t think she’s small and she could never hold her own in a fight with another animal or dog. This person I knew had 2 Lhasa apsos and a husky herding dog mix (idk what kind specifically) and her Lhasa apsos would sometimes fight with the big husky mix and one dog got its eye poped out because of how it was bred it’s eye was already almost outve the socket and then the next Lhasa apso got its eye popped out then one time when I was over at their house the Lhasa apso fought it again for no reason and it’s other eye popped out while I was there and she died at the vet. Then the other dog got its last eye popped out and went blind. I don’t know why they never got rid of the husky or something. But it just shows how fragile these dogs are and it’s really sad to me I always have sm anxiety that my dog is gonna get her eye popped out or snatched up by an eagle or something. It just makes me so mad how far we’ve gone as humans just so we could have nice looking dogs at the expense of their health and well being. I personally like mixed breed dogs way more they almost always look unique

  68. Rosie Umiamaka says:

    How are Olde English Bulldogge purebred by AKC if its made from the American Bulldog which is not a purebred dog?

  69. shesmine22 says:

    I still don't get how u can selectively breed wolves till you eventually get something that looks nothing like it. That's like having a population consisting solely of 5'6" Hispanics and somehow through selective breeding, you get a 7 foot tall Chinese person.

  70. razz P says:

    Does this also apply to people? That is interrecial marriages/kids?

  71. B K says:

    But how did they MAKE breeds?

  72. Mr J says:

    I bought my border collie from a breeder, do I think it was wrong, no this is my first dog that wasn't a rescue. Plus the shelters where I live never have dogs, only cats.

  73. Sandra Mckinlay says:

    doodles

  74. Matthew Tenorio_3200654 says:

    I still can’t understand how different size ,shapes formed from one single wolf like dog. It doesn’t explain how a Wolf like ancestor became can sized Chuahuas or violent Pitbulls.

  75. King Farouq KF says:

    My Fav Breed Is Husky

  76. Frida says:

    0:40 False, there are dog breeds that are between 2000-8000 years old. MOST dog breeds have been created recently, but types (sheepdog, livestock guardian, sled dog, scent hound, sight hound, pest control, toy dog, etcetera) have been around for thousand of years, and some breeds truly have been isolated – on islands or up in the mountains – for that long, and are pure breeds for a very long time.

  77. Caleb (Danny) Lawrence says:

    german shepard

  78. Kat Blue says:

    I like all dogs however my favorite is a Boston Terrier. I cannot remember a time in my life that my family didn’t own one.

  79. ZACH says:

    That Eye is lazy

  80. Fifo101 says:

    These hand movements are hypnotising, almost making me forget that you didn't tell me one thing abot what I wanted to know

  81. funny vids not for kids says:

    Dogs beat cats

  82. Deft Advocate says:

    The video gives an inaccurate idea of what is happening when a new dog breed is being added to the American Kennel Club registry. The new breeds that are added, have usually been in existence for a very, very long time. Many of them are from other countries. When the AKC adds the breed, it means there are now enough dogs of that particular breed owned by people in the United States, so that the AKC will allow those dog owners to form what is called a parent club, to represent the breed in the United States. The new breeds may actually have existed for hundreds or even thousands of years, but they either never existed in the United States, or they never existed in the US, in sufficient numbers, for the AKC to recognize a parent club for them, or no one wanted to form a parent club for them. That is where the new breeds come from, not from new invented dog types, but rather established dog breeds, who are being recognized in the United States for the first time. The parent club then has the responsibility to tell the public everything about the breed; its sizes, its colors, its temperment, its purpose for which it was bred. Usually the parent club also knows what particular diseases may be associated with the breed and tries to inform the public how to pick a puppy, who will be free from that breed's specific diseases. That really is one of the most important functions of a breed registry like the AKC. When good breeders do their research, they will only try to breed dogs which are disease free, based on genetic tests they have done on their dogs BEFORE breeding them. Usually when breeders discover a particular family line in a breed has health problems, they avoid breeding their dogs to that line. The breeder with that line, will usually after discovering a problem, stop breeding that family line. They will then try to start over will a new family line, within that breed of dog.

    It is always important to note any dog that can be recognized as a specific breed, was bred to perform a specific task. No breed was ever really bred to just look a certain way. A German Shepherd was bred to guard flocks, a Doberman Pinscher was bred to protect, a Beagle was bred to find game and alert the hunters when it did, a Labrador Retriever was bred to recover game, and so on. None of these breeds look the way they do, because someone thought that would be a good way for them to look. Rather their looks reflect what they were bred to do, and the whatever they looked like just turned out that way. It is a classic form follows function which determined how established dog breeds look.

  83. Guero Rodriguez says:

    …. what is fucking???

  84. Hugo Schnauzer says:

    The title is deceptive and could have been informative. All this is, is PETA fluff. F*k off.

  85. Shadow_ Flower says:

    red heeler corgi mix

    i got it

  86. Wilbert Pierce says:

    Humans are monsters. Shame on us.

  87. killing fields 191145 says:

    No matter how you look at it they are disgusting mutated ugly rodents Wolf's are the only dog that looks cool the rest of the dog breeds are garbage they're annoying they're disgusting their trash rodents

  88. Surayudh. says:

    #TeamMutt

  89. Waabboommia says:

    I do plan on establishing new breeds responsibly. I wouldn't inbreed too.

  90. Paul Morphy says:

    Dogs are not descended from wolves. Different breeds of dogs were created in the beginning. How many breeds were created is anyone's guess.

  91. 5610winston says:

    I wouldn't know about new breeds: I have a Norwegian Elkhound, a breed that has been around since the last ice age. These dogs are quite versatile, excelling at just about every task a human can ask of them whether we are talking hunting, herding, guardian, or companion. That they are among the most beautiful, charismatic, and intelligent of all breeds is just a bonus.^-^

  92. Laura Huynh says:

    One word: INCEST!

  93. not Justin Y. says:

    Click bait false information

  94. Very Crunchy Pretzels says:

    Mutt

  95. Emir Tatari says:

    Goddamn her eyes 😍, anyways yeah dogs are cool

  96. Deepak Gill says:

    It would be good if u actually answered the question

  97. Irishdragon 100 says:

    Mutts are healthier than "pure breeds".

  98. Reis W. K. says:

    Find a different vid on this subject or just read an article. NOT WORTH WATCHING

  99. Pro Gamer873 says:

    mines a chi po

  100. Su says:

    Why does she look like the female version of that ‘film theory’ dude. Idk what his name is. Matt? Idk

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