Let us be Heroes – The True Cost of our Food Choices (2018) Full documentary

♪ (music) ♪ (Rebecca Cappelli) All truths
go through three stages. First, it is mocked and ridiculed, then it is violently opposed, and, finally, we accept it
as being evident. Slavery, women’s rights, LGBTQ rights, gender equality: all movements went through these stages. One of the most defining truths that will be evident
for future generations is the answer to this question: Is it possible that we humans,
as a species, have been eating the wrong food? ♪ (music) ♪ I was 16 when I traveled with my school
overseas for the first time. We went to London,
and we had a great time. We visited the city,
we had beautiful weather. At the end of that day,
a teacher pulled me aside. And when I saw the look on his face, my heart stopped. And this is how I learned
that my father died of cancer. Whenever I speak about this, people empathize, and they share their own story and how they, too,
have lost someone they loved– a parent, a mentor, a friend. And, as painful as it is, the truth is we have become
so accustomed to this happening to us, it has become so common that we accept being sick and dying early as part of life. ♪ (music) ♪ (Luke Tan) Throughout my younger years,
I was quite a sick kid, and I spent many years
of my life in hospital, and I was just really, really weak
with nephrotic syndrome that I had. It required me to be
on a whole host of steroids that really stunted my growth
and also made me obese. And I felt really,
really unconfident in my own skin because I always remember,
when I was younger, I always wanted
to kind of tuck in my shirt, but I couldn’t tuck in my shirt. And I remember,
when I was in primary school, my friends and my classmates
used to call me a double scoop ice-cream
with a cherry on top. I still remember those days where all these guys
were playing basketball and badminton and everything, and there I was, this fat kid,
that just wanted to kind of fit in. I remember watching Commando
and Rambo I, Rambo II, Rambo III and looking at Sylvester Stallone
and Arnold Schwarzenegger and looking at those guys,
“Man, I want to look like those guys!” So, I think that’s how
I kind of really got, “Alright, I want to really start
going to the gym and start to train.” And so I went into the local gym,
just to start doing weight training. And, of course, being a teenager, you just wanted to grow biceps
and chest and nothing else. So, that’s all I did. I was always focused on protein,
just getting big, and I was literally
having 5 to 6 kilos of meat per week. So, we had like a chicken day,
we had a fish day, we had a pork day, we had a beef day. I just really didn’t know any better. Naturally, I’ve never been
somebody who ate a lot of meat. I would probably
eat red meat once a month. Fish, probably once or twice a week, a bit of chicken,
but mostly it was like beans and tofu– that’s what I’ve always preferred. But then, when I moved in with him,
I needed to accommodate his diet. I’ve always loved to cook,
I had to eat the same way he did. My digestive system was really bad. I felt I was retaining water. I felt like– I really didn’t feel
my best. (laughs) I remember training in the morning,
like super early morning, and just feeling so lethargic, because of what I had,
like I had a steak for breakfast. Five a.m. we heated up a strip of steak
with a knob of butter. Because we believed that carbs were bad. And I still remember
when we went to the cafe, and we had our bacon and eggs,
and we saw someone across eating fruits. We were like, “Oh, look at that person. There’s so much sugar in there.” We were just like, I don’t know,
we were just stuck in our own ways. And, yeah, I just felt worse
and worse and worse. If we look at the leading cause
of death in the world, way more than wars,
violence and accidents, the leading cause of death
is chronic disease– so, diseases like cancer,
heart disease, strokes, diabetes. And these diseases together kill more than
30 million people every year. That’s more than the entire population of Shanghai and Singapore,
combined together, or half of the UK, or more than the entire
population of Australia, dying of these diseases every single year. And when we look at these numbers, actually, a really small fraction
is caused by genetic predisposition, but more than 90% can be attributed
to lifestyle choices, including diet. So, here we are, running around, desperately looking for a cure
to all these illnesses, when the cure is in the prevention. Recently, a few years back, the WHO classified processed meat as a Type 1 carcinogen. And, in fact, it becomes worse for you when you do things
like put it on a grill, cook it, or have it with your deli
cold cuts in a sandwich. In spite of this WHO classification, there’s been
very little recognition around it. It hasn’t really moved the needle in terms of what’s available
at your grocery store, or what’s available on your plate
when you go to a restaurant. (Luke) I think the way I was supplementing was to kind of fuel a nutritionally-void
and highly acidic, inflammatory diet. I had a lot of joint issues. I was big– I was probably a lot bigger
than I am right now, but I had a lot of joint issues,
I was quite lethargic. I couldn’t really run at all. I remember when the tram
was right over there, and I had to run for the tram. I just let it go because I said, “Running is catabolic for my muscle mass,
so I’m not going to run.” Really, in actual fact,
I just didn’t have the energy. (Emilie) Every single meal,
I felt bloated, I felt in pain. Just going for nice dates and nice places
that I should have enjoyed, I was fearing going there,
I knew was going to feel bad after. It would just kill all the romance, all the fun that there should be
around going to a nice place to eat, because I was just feeling so bad. (interviewer) So, at what point
did you decide to do something about it? So after about a year and a half of dating
I was like, “I need to do something.” And I saw on Facebook,
there was a girl that I know… I just saw the pictures of her food
and it was like lots of fruits. And I couldn’t believe, I was like, “How can somebody
just eat fruits for a meal? This is too much sugar–
it’s not healthy!” But she looked so good. Her eyes were bright,
her skin was beautiful. I was just like,
I want to do what she does. I remember going to work and just buying
a bunch of fruits as my lunch. I remember having like two
or three bananas in a row and being like, “Oh my God,
this tastes so amazing. I want that.” And then, I would say,
within a couple days, most of my digestive problems were gone. ♪ (music) ♪ (Luke) I saw a significant shift
in her energy and just her digestion, and I was kind of inspired,
like, “Okay, what’s going on?” I made the switch, and I remember
that morning itself I went to my gym with a big 800 grams of tofu. I didn’t know what the hell
I was doing, so I was just like, “Alright, well, I’m just gonna substitute
gram for gram protein and see what happens.” I was a little bit gassy,
because, of course, it was like 800 grams of tofu and beans–
that’s going to get you gassy. But I actually felt
like my digestion was better. Although I was gassy, it was better. And I was having lots of fruits as well. And all of a sudden
I had this spike in energy. And I think a few days
after I made that switch, I went for my first run with Emilie–
I think we ran 5Ks. And I was astounded
how I just ran without stopping. I was like, “Where is this
coming from? This is crazy! I could not run after a tram before,
and now I ran 5K without stopping!” I had to relearn what I knew about protein
and through what I learned, I realized we don’t actually need
that much protein. There’s this over-emphasis on protein,
particularly animal protein. And what I’ve learned now is that,
at the end of the day, it’s not how much protein you consume
but how much you’re actually assimilating. Because when you’re under
this kind of protein spell, which was where I was,
I forgot about everything else. I forgot about, you know,
what about my antioxidants, what about my fiber? I just did not think of that. (TV static) (beep) (young boy) What girl’s gonna go for me
with a body like this? (older boy) Hang in there, Tom.
I’m you, two years from now, cuz you’re drinking milk and working out. (younger boy)
Well, I’m not changing so far. – (older boy) But milk works inside you.
– (younger boy) Oh, yeah? (young adult)
And small difference can show all that protein for muscle
and calcium for bones. (younger boy) But I’m still
a skinny bench-warmer! (adult man) Hey, if the sight of yourself
at 18 doesn’t convince you, Tom, listen to your senior year girlfriend. (girlfriend) Hi, Tom. I’m waiting… (adult man) Milk. It does a body good. Growing up in America
in the 1980s, 1990s, even the 2000s, you had a lot of ads on TV. Sitting there after school,
watching cartoons, and all of a sudden you see a photo or you see an ad, a video, with some beautiful celebrity
that you recognize, and they’ve got this little white mustache
across their face, and the ad says, “Got milk?” So, there was always this culture
of drinking milk, and there was a lot of campaigns
around drinking milk. The questions around the dairy industry
really started to creep in when my parents started to get sick. My mother went through breast cancer,
my father had a heart disease, and my father’s a diabetic from the past. And I started to really look at what
could be causing some of these things. Everything I looked at,
all of the research that I read, kept on coming back
to this idea of nutrition, especially in the case
of people like my parents who had never had a drink in their lives,
they had never had a cigarette, and they were vegetarian
through and through their entire lives. It really became, “Well,
how do we isolate potential causes of what’s making them sick?” Because it wasn’t also
hereditary in my family. I started looking at things like dairy, I started to really
then begin to understand how products like milk and cheese and other things
that we really rely on as vegetarians, in places like America, actually get to our plate
and what’s really in them. (milking machine noise) To me, it just really does not make sense
to drink the milk of another species. I’m a big supporter of breastfeeding. I’m still breastfeeding my 16-month old. To me, it just makes sense. My milk is made to suit a baby human. And the milk of a cow
is made to suit a little calf, to go from a very small calf
to become a big cow or a bull within a very short period of time. So, how would that
be health food for humans? In America, 80% of the antibiotics
that are manufactured by the industry are actually pumped into
and injected into animals, whether that’s livestock
that’s slaughtered or that’s cows, you know,
that then are making milk. Even if it’s coming from a cow
that’s been in your backyard, whatever, it still contains the growth hormones, it still contains the estrogen
because it’s coming from– A pregnant lactating female cow. So, it’s the highest amount
of estrogens in there, and a high level of estrogens actually contribute to things
like prostate and breast cancer. By nature, our digestive tracts,
the length of our digestive tracts, the pH in our body
and the digestive enzymes in our mouth, we are carbohydrate-digesting organisms. So, when we actually consume a diet
that’s natural to us, we will thrive. I mean, not just thrive
in the sense of health, but we will perform better,
we’ll think clearer, we’ll digest better. There’s so much science now
and research showing that a plant-based diet
also not just gets you healthy, but promotes long-term health
and longevity as well. For me, it’s about being around
for a very long time, and to be a granddad,
maybe to be a great-granddad. If we look at the Blue Zones,
places in the world where people easily reach 90,
100 years old, disease-free, one of the key factors that help them
maintain a healthy lifestyle throughout their whole life is their diet. And their diet
is more than 95% plant-based. I started changing my diet 17 years ago. I turned vegetarian. At that time, it was a very simple reason, just out of compassion for animals. The one moment that shocked me was when I read
about the United Nations reports about climate change
and the livestock industry. That was a huge shocker. Animal agriculture
is actually one of the biggest factors in terms of hurting the planet
and also severely threatening the future of many generations
and of the whole survival of mankind. ♪ (music) ♪ Recently, I read a research that compared livestock,
all the key meat companies, in terms of carbon footprint
versus big oil companies. Now, we would think
that the ExxonMobils of the world are the evil in terms of carbon footprint. But, shockingly, when you look
at the top 5 meat companies, their combined carbon footprint is bigger than top
oil companies in the world. We are like a runaway train right now, and we are accelerating,
but the cliff is here, so… It’s only a matter of time,
in fact, I think it’s happening already. ♪ (music) ♪ (Peter Hammarstedt)
We can’t ignore the fact that animal agriculture
has a massive impact on the oceans. We’ve got these dead zones
that are being created because of the incredible amounts
of nitrogen being put into the oceans. We’ve got coral reefs bleaching and dying, and we have to acknowledge
that animal agriculture is one of the leading causes
of global warming. As one out of three fish
that’s being caught in the oceans is being used to feed animals, and overfishing is a massive problem
that we have to deal with if we want to survive
as a species on this planet, then we have to seriously
review our eating habits. The whole world is obsessed today with cutting down
plastic straw consumption. But the reality of it is that if you take all the straws
around the world, and you put them all into the ocean, that is still less than
a tenth of a percent of the plastic that goes
into the ocean every year. In fact, more than 40% of the plastic
that goes into the ocean is plastic fishing nets. When I was 14 years old
I saw a picture of a dead minke whale being pulled up the slipway
of an 8,000-ton factory whaling ship operating in the Antarctic. And that image
really struck a chord with me. It became symbolic
of this devastating relationship that we as a species have with the oceans. I think like most people I thought that whaling was something
that had ended in the 70s or 80s, that this was a victory
of the conservation movement. So, to find out that not only
was it still happening, but it was happening despite the fact that there was
a global moratorium on whaling made me feel the need to get involved
and stop that crime from taking place. In the 1950s, there were
over 50 industrial factory whaling ships operating in the Antarctic
at any one time. Only one of those remain– it’s a ship called the Nisshin Maru,
it’s 8,000 tons, and it goes down to the Southern Ocean
every single year and conducts illegal whaling
in a designated whale sanctuary. ♪ (music) ♪ This is the vessel that I saw a picture of
when I was 14 years old, and the vessel that had haunted
my dreams ever since. I spent 10 years
working with Sea Shepherd, chasing the Nisshin Maru
around the Southern Ocean. And one of the most harrowing experiences
that my crew and I had was when we were put in a position to block that 8,000-ton
factory whaling ship from refueling, knowing that if we could cut off
their fuel supply, then we would force them
to head home early, cutting their whaling season short. I remember it was a very windstill day as the Sun Laurel,
this massive oil tanker, was getting ready to receive this 8,000-ton
factory whaling ship alongside. My crew and I essentially
double parked the tanker, telling this 8,000-ton
factory whaling ship that if they wanted to refuel,
they would have to go through us to do it, that they would have to sink us
to take on fuel. That resulted
in a five-day-long confrontation where my vessel was sandwiched
between these two massive ships. And, ultimately,
this 8,000-ton factory whaling ship tried to push my vessel out of the way
to take this position. But we stood our ground for the whales,
and we stood fast, and by doing so, when we put the captain
of the Nisshin Maru in the position where he would
either have to back down or sink us, he ultimately had to retreat. That was a year where we saved
the lives of 932 whales, a year where the Japanese whaling fleet reached only 10%
of their bogus self-allocated quota. ♪ (music) ♪ I think, generally, people feel
incredibly passionate about whaling. Most people would never eat a whale. And yet, if you look
at the industrial fishing industry, you’ll discover that over
300,000 whales and dolphins are being killed every single year
as bycatch of the industrial fishing gear. (Vikas) I think, globally,
food systems are broken and challenged. Today, we have 800 million people
around the world that are malnourished, or hungry, or starving, yet we feed cattle
that’s then slaughtered for food for a much, much
smaller minority of people. With knowledge comes power and with power
comes responsibility as well. And I believe that we need
to have a collective mindset. It’s no more about competition, because this Earth
provides sufficient for everyone, but it’s really the greed
that creates this disparity and this mentality of scarcity. (Peter) I think
there’s a tendency in the West that whenever illegal fishing
or overfishing is discussed, that fingers are pointed at China. Most of the tuna
that’s being taken out of West Africa is being taken out of West Africa
by the European fishing fleet in order to supply the demand
for tuna in the West. What I’ve seen firsthand,
working all around Africa, in combating illegal
unreported and unregulated fishing, is this model that Noam Chomsky authored in terms of this is a transfer
of so-called food from the needy to the greedy. And this demand that we have in the West, in wealthy countries,
for cheap, readily available fish, is really leading
to the seas being sucked dry out of waters where some of the world’s
poorest people are dependent on fish for their livelihoods. We, as human beings today, kill and consume a hundred billion
land-based animals every year. That’s more animals
that we kill every year than all humans
that have ever lived on Earth. If you start adding up
the fish in the sea, that we take out of the sea every year, that’s another two,
two and a half trillion. The United Nations Food
and Agriculture Organization, the UNFAO, state that 90% of the world’s fisheries are either fully exploited
or overexploited. And, if current trends continue,
then by 2048, the world’s major fisheries will be gone. ♪ (music) ♪ (Rebecca) Ten years ago,
I was living in China, and I adopted a dog, Oneida. And I learned that
he was rescued from dog meat. And I was really shocked to learn
that it was happening in a city like Shanghai. So, whenever I found strays
in the streets– cats and dogs– I rescued them. I was not just rescuing them
from the streets, but also from the violence
of what could happen to them. I thought I was doing my best,
for the longest time, until about three years ago, I realized that I was saving
some animals from being eaten, but I was eating other animals myself. As I was going through this realization, this awakening, I could see for the first time
on my plate, not just meat, but actually the flesh of animals that had to live a terrible life
and suffer and die just for a few moments of pleasure for me. I looked at my very expensive handbag, and it was like a spell broke, and I could see that it was
just the skin of mutilated animals. ♪ (music) ♪ I lived in China about 10 years ago,
and I remember buying a vintage fur coat. And I showed it
to one of my Australian friends, who just told me, “Are you aware
that this might be cat or dog fur?” I was like, “What are you talking about?
This is impossible.” And she was like, “No, no,
here they do eat cats and dogs, and they do use the fur to make coats.” And this is how
I think I made the connection, because I was like, “Okay,
I am able to wear a fox without caring at all, and I could not for even a second
imagine wearing a cat or a dog coat, because they’re my friends
and I grew up with them.” I think that’s the turning point where I completely
stopped fantasizing about fur. I’ve decided to go cruelty-free
because, as a designer and influencer, I think it’s our responsibility to act on something meaningful. ♪ (music) ♪ Fashion can be seen
as something quite superficial, without a meaning,
careless about these kinds of values. I think it’s possible today to be trendy without being bloody, being fun without harming anyone. We cannot massively kill
all these animals for coats, bags, shoes. I think people need to reconnect,
and I think they forgot the connection. They used to have it when they were kids, but I don’t think
they can make the connection and relate to the cute little lamb
they see on Instagram and the lambskin bag they just bought
on a high-end brand. As children, it is actually
part of our nature to care and to have empathy towards each other,
but also towards animals. But, somehow, along the way
we are conditioned not to care. After millions of years of evolution, nature has selected empathy
as a human trait. And that means it’s there for a reason. If we look at the egg industry, where only the females are valuable
because they lay eggs, every other chick that is born
that is not female– so the male– are considered a waste product because they won’t grow
fast enough to be profitable, and they also won’t lay eggs. The most profitable way
that the industry has found to deal with these baby chicks
is to discard them as they hatch. We are grinding them up alive, gassing them, putting baby chicks in gas chambers. ♪ (music) ♪ People tend to forget
something very elementary– that a cow has to be pregnant, it has to have a baby
in order to produce milk, just like we humans or any other mammal. In the dairy industry, we want the milk to produce cheese
and yogurt and ice-cream. We force cows to be pregnant
over and over. We take their babies away from them,
one after the other, year after year, because, obviously, we don’t want
the babies to have the milk. The males are sent to slaughter for veal, and the females are raised
to become dairy cows, just like their mothers. So, it doesn’t matter
if the eggs or the dairy comes from a factory farm
or a free-range farm, the matter of fact is all babies
are taken from their mothers in the dairy farms, and all the male chicks are killed
in the egg farms. And this is happening in the US,
in Australia, in European countries, in Asian countries. It’s happening everywhere. There’s a huge
social justice component to it. It’s unfair and unreasonable for us to kill just for our food. We don’t need it. But, in spite of that,
and in spite of it being very bad for you, we continue to do it anyway. (Emilie) Every single week we are killing
more than a billion animals. (Rebecca) We are destroying
our home planet, and it’s all for foods we don’t need and that are making us sick in return. (gulls crying) (Peter) I think one of the reasons that people generally
don’t tend to care so much about fish is that the oceans are out of sight
and out of mind for so many people. It’s been said that if slaughterhouses had glass walls, then everybody would go over
to a plant-based diet. Now, imagine that those slaughterhouses were hundreds
and hundreds of miles offshore, accessible only by boat. Fish don’t have vocal cords,
so their screams are silent even though they have
the same capacity to suffer as we do. But we also have to look
at how language is used to justify slaughter. We go to the supermarket,
and we don’t buy cow, we buy beef; we don’t buy pig, we buy pork. And within the fishing industry,
the language is chosen very specifically to make a disconnect
between people and the products that they ultimately buy. We don’t talk about the number
of fish killed every single year, we talk about the number
of tons of fish that’s killed every year. We don’t talk about fish
being killed or hooked or netted, we talk about fish being harvested, as if they were apples
being picked off a tree in an orchard. And we don’t talk about fish populations,
we talk about fish stock, as if they were simply
taken off the shelf of a warehouse. So, in one single sentence, you can talk about x number
of ton fish stock being harvested. It’s no small surprise
that there is a big disconnect between people
and the fish they’re eating. What the reality is if we look
at the urgency of the planet and the urgency
of the whole macro issues– we should be turning
our lifestyle upside down. People have emotional connection
and relationship with food. Food is so much more
than just filling our stomach or nourishing our body. It is social, it is emotional,
it is cultural. One of the biggest challenges
that I faced my entire life is when I go out with friends, and there is zero
or maybe one vegetarian option. Now it’s worse,
when it comes to vegan options. We need to improve the experience if the world is going
to become more sustainable. We need to really deliver on this idea of creating more
plant-based options everywhere. I always say that for,
you know, ultimate health benefits, we should all be eating
organic whole foods, every meal. Unfortunately, we live in urban societies. Most of us do not have time to cook. We may not even have farms around us,
in the case of Hong Kong, in the case of many cities
or many countries around the world. I think the food tech space
plays a crucial role in this food revolution
and protein revolution. We’ve been relying so much on animals to be the key protein
or ingredients in our meal. If you just ask people
to switch to tofu and vegetables– that won’t work. You know, I think Beyond Meat
and Beyond Burger is one of the iconic examples of that. People were still very doubtful, you know. What does a vegan burger–
How good could a vegan burger be? But now, when any carnivore,
or anyone for that matter, just gets a bite of the Beyond Burger, the majority, if not all of them,
say, “Hey, I can eat this every day!” We work with a lot of these ingredients– plant-based chicken, plant-based burger, vegan eggs. Now, the ingredient itself
is very exciting. We turn these ingredients into dishes
that really can fit the local palates– steamed buns, or dumplings:
ultimate comfort food for Asian people. To always understand
that the ingredient is one part, but the recipe, what we do with it, and how to close that cultural gap,
or bridge that gap, is critical in terms
of shifting people’s behavior. I think to meet the urban lifestyle, also to meet the need
that we have created– having these products
is a good intermediate step. It certainly is an improvement over whatever meat products
or processed meats that we eat. It’s really our choice what kind
of world do we want to live in. Today, I view this opportunity
for people to go plant-based, or be more plant-based, as probably one of the defining triumphs that we can have
from a sustainability perspective. ♪ (music) ♪ (Rebecca) Change can be scary because we think
about everything we give up, we think about all the hassle, we worry about upsetting
the people we care about. But, actually, change is not
about becoming someone else. So, when I changed, I changed the way I was living. I changed the way I was eating, but I became who I am. (Rime) Being an animal lover is about putting all animals
on the same level. It’s about considering them
as true characters with an emotional intelligence, feelings, and even a spiritual side. I think putting the energy
of a suffering animal in your own sanctuary is something that cannot
leave you at peace. And you cannot be connected
to the people, and to life and love, if you have a suffering energy inside you. ♪ (music) ♪ (Rebecca) I know many people tell me, “Well, everything in moderation,
we need to have a balance.” Moderation, in that context,
doesn’t make a lot of sense. Would we say that,
“Oh, it’s okay to kill in moderation. It’s okay to destroy the planet
in moderation”? ♪ (music) ♪ If we are in a position to choose, it means we are privileged. So, we need to really think
about the impact of our choices on others and on the planet. Sometimes I even question
whatever we do, is that barely going to make
a difference at all? How much difference can one person make? That’s one type of sentiment that I have. But on the other hand,
when I look at a lot of these people who are working very hard,
whether they are scientists, whether they are researchers,
whether they are academics, whether they are entrepreneurs,
whether they’re investors, just channeling
all their resources to this cause and doing whatever it takes
to make a difference. And I am actually
seeing real behavior change. On my first campaign with Sea Shepherd,
we were patrolling the Galapagos Islands to stop the poaching of sharks
for shark fins. I remember feeling really challenged
by the fact that here we were, pulling up 8km of devastating
destructive fishing gear, but at the same time there was enough of this gear
set in the water, all over the world, to go around the world 80 times. And I remember thinking, “Well,
what difference is this really making?” But, as the hooks were coming up on deck, I remember holding
one of those hooks in my hand, and as it gleamed under the moonlit night, I thought, “Well, this particular hook
is not going to kill a sea turtle or a shark or a tuna
this particular night.” And, to think that
that doesn’t make a difference, is incredibly human-centered. And I remember
holding this hook in my hand and thinking, “Okay,
maybe we can’t save the entire world, but we can certainly save the entire world
for one particular animal.” Being at sea is dangerous
in and of itself, especially if you’re going down
to the Southern Ocean where there are dangerous
ice conditions to navigate. It’s not uncommon
to have 8, 9, 10-meter seas in a place like the Southern Ocean. Coupled with that is the fact
that we are going up against poachers and trying to affect their bottom line. My ship’s been rammed
on a number of occasions. We’ve had all kinds
of dangerous confrontations with ships because we are trying to get
between them and their profits. But, ultimately, I think there is
no greater responsibility, I guess, on us in being able to try to stop suffering than to get on the front lines
at the scene of the crime between the poachers
and the animals they’re trying to kill. (Emilie) There’s a saying
that says, basically, that we are borrowing the land
from our children. But I really feel
that there’s a shift at the moment. I want to believe because if I don’t believe
it’s just such a sad life. I just want to leave a better place
for my daughter than now. When I was younger, a young person coming out as gay
was seen like something really bad. And now my daughter’s
going to grow up in a world where it’s actually okay and normal. With our grandparents, mixed marriages like us
did not even exist. And now we’re in a world
where it’s absolutely normal and it’s even great. My daughter’s a Eurasian
and now she’s seen as a beauty. Decades ago, she would
have been seen as an abnormality. So, it’s just, to me, these are all signs – that we’re actually…
– Evolving as a species. …we’re evolving
and the world is getting better. I really believe that today, becoming more plant-based
is not a compromise, it’s not a sacrifice, it’s simply a better way to live. It’s going to make you feel better,
it’s going to make you sleep better, it’s going to make
your relationships better, not just your relationships
with animals and the Earth, but also with people. I think it’s a much more
sustainable way to live, and, by doing so, we can really raise the bar
on who we are as individuals. ♪ (music) ♪ (Rime) The difference I noticed
when I changed my diet is that I simply got happier. I felt more connected
to the people around me, to myself. I loved myself more, I judged myself
and the people around me less. I think it’s always good to have the hope. We need to. ♪ (music) ♪ (Peter) What Sea Shepherd
really represents is this requirement or this necessity
for people to take individual action, that problems don’t go away because we simply
hope that they’ll go away. Problems won’t go away
if we put all the responsibility for solving these problems
on government or government agencies. Our own personal involvement is required. That trifecta of being able
to protect the environment, save animals and protect people– those are the three perfect ingredients that give me the motivation
to keep going. (Luke) One simple switch
has a profound effect on everything, because it’s not just turning off lights
when you’re not using it, brushing your teeth
and turning off the tap. Those are a small fraction
of what actually contributes to a greener and better world. That simple switch of just looking
at what you have on your plate is a vote for change, a vote for change
for what you’d like to see in the world and for future generations. And it takes everyday people
to make that shift, and that shift really starts
from what you have on your plate. (Rebecca) Every time we eat,
we have a choice. We can choose health over disease, peace over violence, protection over destruction. Empower yourself with knowledge, and when you do,
you can answer that question: Is it time for a change? ♪ (music) ♪

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100 Responses


    To find out more about who made this film and their work please visit http://www.letusbeheroes.com

  2. Joyrobin says:

    This specifically is concerning me with the dairy as I am doing well as a vegetarian now for one year but rely heavily on yogurt and cheese (not into beans lol). I LOVE yogurt at night will miss it. I must add that I have easily maintained my weight for first time in my life since I gave up meat. I preface this with I exercised daily before and after becoming vegetarian and became because I could no longer in good conscious eat meat.

  3. Flor Varela says:

    Hi I just started staying away from meets n b vegan I just find it hard to make foods …If anybody could send links Plz

  4. Kate Dport33 says:

    I had no idea about the whaling. It's so important to educate the public on the dangers we are creating. It doesn't impact most directly day to day even though this is a major issue for humans and animals

  5. Sienna Crippen says:

    28:07 PLEASE EVERYONE LOOK AT THAT TIME IN THE VIDEO, I broke down the cow is crying real tears, my heart breaks for these precious beings, i wish this didn't happen to them

  6. The Oracle Oracle says:

    Jumped off the vegan diet 4 years ago and decided to go back. Health being seriously compromised not to mention the fact that humans seem to overdo everything and destroy the very systems we depend on. I am done eating animal products.

  7. Jason Engholm says:

    I was denied meat growing up. I had problems exercising I was constantly weak and out of energy. I did not build muscle or make progress from exercise. when I started working and having a supply of my own money I would sneak meat into my diet. my body changed almost instantly. I was in a better mood. I had energy and was able to actually start building muscle and making progress physically. my stamina and endurance was able increase. please do not fall into this trap. these people do not know what they are talking about. also they have no regard for the living plants that they consume or the massive loss of insect and animal life in order to protect the crops.

  8. chaoe123 says:

    AMAZING!!! ๐Ÿถ๐Ÿฑ๐Ÿญ๐Ÿฐ๐Ÿฐ๐ŸฆŠ๐Ÿจ๐Ÿฏ๐Ÿธ๐Ÿฆ๐Ÿธ๐Ÿ’๐Ÿฎ๐Ÿ™ˆ๐Ÿ”๐Ÿฆ๐Ÿฃ๐Ÿ™‰๐Ÿฅ๐Ÿธ๐Ÿฆ‹๐Ÿฆ‘๐Ÿ๐Ÿข๐ŸฆŽ๐Ÿฆ‹๐ŸŽ๐Ÿ˜๐Ÿฆ›๐Ÿ‚๐Ÿฆ๐Ÿฆ™๐Ÿฆ“๐ŸฆŒ๐Ÿซ๐Ÿ–๐Ÿฆ‚๐ŸŸ๐Ÿฆš๐Ÿฆš๐Ÿ€๐Ÿ๐Ÿ ๐ŸŒฒ๐ŸŒด๐ŸŒฑ๐ŸŒฟ๐Ÿ€โ˜˜๏ธ๐Ÿƒโ˜€๏ธโ›…๏ธ๐ŸŒฅ๐ŸŒง๐Ÿ’ฆ๐ŸŒŠ๐ŸŒˆ๐Ÿ’–๐Ÿ’–๐Ÿ’–๐Ÿ’–๐Ÿ’–๐Ÿ’–๐Ÿ’–๐Ÿ’–

  9. babz anderson says:

    Keep up the message Guys ,,it really is time for change.

  10. greg greg says:

    love this ๐ŸŒฟ๐Ÿ˜Š albert einstein once said, โ€œthe world is a very dangerous place – not because of those who do evil, but because of those who donโ€™t do anything about itโ€

  11. Eve Vendetta Isu says:

    its happening allready

  12. Grace Smith says:

    This documentary is so good!!! It even made me cry ๐Ÿ˜ญ Iโ€™m vegan and I will always be vegan ๐ŸŒฑ๐Ÿ’–๐Ÿ’–๐Ÿ’–

  13. Azlan Foodscapes - Edible Landscapes for Everyone says:

    I doubt if pregnant cows lactate, Luke Tan. Its cows that have just hiven birth that lactate…

  14. Bobby Saget says:

    Been vegan also been fruitarian for a while became a lethargic skinny loser. Got on RAW carnivore diet and in 3 months went from 110 pounds to 140 eyes starting to turn more blue from green i feel on top of the world my serotonin and testostorone is thru the roof never felt better got rid of my psoriasis and rhuematiod arthritis. VEGANISM PLANT BASED IS AN AGENDA BEING PUSHED ON YOU! TRUE CARE FOR ANIMALS AND THE PLANET IS LIVING A SELF SUSTAINING LIFE WHERE YOU CARE FOR AND HAVE YOUR OWN FARM!! FUCK VEGANISM

  15. Sebastian SรผรŸ says:

    Amazing, your film moved me to tears…โค๏ธ

  16. little lentil says:

    Excellent work! Vegan for 5 years. Best decision I have ever made.

  17. Raccoon says:


  18. Michelle Annette says:

    Really beautiful documentary. I would love to hear what non-vegans think about it. It's easy as a vegan to be moved by something like this, and I will share it with the people in my life who are open to learning more. It's always a little scary to share this kind of knowledge because I don't want my friends and family to think I am judging them – especially if they do not change.

  19. uKnow says:

    I don't feel bad for eating meat or killing of an animal, but what does make me unhappy is that HOW the animal is treated BEFORE being killed. It's so incredibly sad ๐Ÿ™ They are so mistreated it's terrible ways and conditions before being killed in a horrible way, no LOVE, CARE was EVER GIVEN or PUT INTO THEM. The way the turkeys were treated I by accident happen to see was SO INCREDIBLY DISTURBING TO ME I could not understand how anything or anyone could be so cruel ๐Ÿ™

  20. Celaena Odd says:

    I used to be vegan in the past, but had to give it up because I was homeless and when I lived with friends, they told me I either eat their food, or I don't eat at all. But now that I have my own home, I'm going back vegan ๐Ÿ’™

  21. Pam Forougi says:

    Don't believe this garbage its agenda 21

  22. Bozena Kordek says:

    That why I'm VEGAN!

  23. Beautiful says:

    How is this legal? How are we, smart superior humans, the center of gods eye, are completely careless to this suffering?

  24. Kate Burton says:

    I think this is just wonderful. xxx

  25. Dachs & Rottweiler says:

    so much love***

  26. Sapphireblue777 says:

    Vegan for 5 years, gave up eggs about 7-8 months ago. Never going back either

  27. Murat Turgut says:


  28. Stephanie Boykin says:

    . . . really good video… great information . . .

  29. Sascha says:

    overall an interesting and comprehensive documentation but in my eyes too much of the vegan propaganda which is one of the main reasons why people fight veganism so hard…

  30. Dark Daughter says:

    Wonderful work. But if humans and animals didn't eat fish, and nothing ate fish, fish would eat their babies and eat each other. They would also overpopulate and fill the sea with their pee and poop which in time would cause us disease. It's even possible that the world will end. Lol this is all part of why I am a pescatarian lol.

  31. Beautiful Life says:

    We have to drink tea instead of milk

  32. Marta Martรญnez Sanz says:

    Thank you for creating this amazing documentary! I'm in tears… Because it represents so well what veganism is, and it is shown with LOVE, COMPASSION and KINDNESS. It is officially in the top of vegan documentaries. โค๏ธโค๏ธโค๏ธ

  33. Rose Xavier says:

    really awesome video! now a daysย it's really difficult for me to eat meat knowing the pain and suffering of animals and the damage we have caused on the environment.

  34. Catherine Xu says:

    Amazing work of these film makers, I am not vegan yet, but I have been cutting down meat to merely 5% of my food choice since begining of 2019. It is going to be an amazing year for this major change!

  35. Mel Toretto says:

    VEGAN Bodybuilding On The Rise!!!!!!!!

  36. Antoinette Parry says:

    There might be something in milk that you don't want but not in butter, or even cheese because it's only the fat. But when it comes to vegetables. Look at what's been done to them in the last twenty or thirty years. They've been doctored all out of shape, they're no longer natural. They're poisoned before they're even seeded in the ground and you're blaming the animals. WHY?

  37. Lula22 says:

    I just realised how the system push diary from tv, school, university…..even work places ……

  38. Dobrin Nikolov says:

    Love it!

  39. M. Bsh says:

    Thank you for this powerfull documentary!

  40. James Kelevra says:

    Well, saying that "acceptance" of being homosexual is good doesn't seem adequate, but thanks for all the stuff about healthy lifestyle

  41. Kiril Angelov says:

    I have never cried so hard in my entire life. Thank you for this! Thank you!

  42. Wagner e Karina says:

    ๐Ÿ‘๐Ÿ‘ Where to find in Portuguese?

  43. Nicole Gauss says:

    I'm not vegan, but I don't eat dairy, and I'm working to eat as plant-based as possible! Moving slowly to full-on veganism because I KNOW it'll make me feel better (and not to mention all of the environmental perks)

  44. Anthony DiMichele says:

    I saw Fredrick Wiseman's documentary film: MEAT way back in 1976… I was appalled so I stopped eating meat then and there… but it took many more years to stop consuming dairy. I have been on a whole food plant based diet for a decade (I am raw vegan during the warmer months, but living in a cold northern environment, I add steamed starches during the cold season). It was a moral choice at first alone… the great health benefits of not eating animals, dairy, and veg oils were actually incidental!

  45. Miriam Schaefer says:

    Thank you to everyone who chooses to live responsibly โค๏ธโค๏ธ๐ŸŒบ

  46. Fiona Bushby says:

    What an eye opener…..if I could have one wish it would be that everyone would watch this…….then the world would change.

  47. Russel Murray says:

    2 years n u will see changes on the planet we will not recover from

  48. Brenda Robinson says:

    Excellent! Thank you so much! Sharing and promoting!

  49. Marie says:

    BRAVO ร  Rรฉbecca Cappelli et ร  tous les intervenants ! Ce film est rรฉvรฉlateur de nos choix futur… Ce n'est pas la planรจte Terre qui est en danger, mais l'HUMANITE. Car la prochaine espรจce ร  disparaรฎtre sera la nรดtre si nous continuons ainsi ! MERCI pour ce docu ๐Ÿ™‚

  50. Julia Montalvo says:

    Omg I'm crying seen how these animals are slaughtered. It killed me to see the cow running after the truck taking her baby. How can people say they need to be so cruel to survive. Just terrible. The baby chicks. Nooooo please we need to wake up and realize how nature is getting back at us and making us very sick from consuming these animals that we kill just to feed ourselves. We can still get the same nutrients from plants and live a healthy life. We need to stop hurting animals and ourselves and have better choices to live a better life

  51. vistagraphsnet says:

    It is now time to respond to the fast โ€œunhealthyโ€ food industry and it's franchises. This can be led by the MDs and other professions who so eloquently explain the reason it is needed.
    I envision such a response would use the McDonald's playbook starting with its golden arches. Instead of arches a giant silver V would be underlined with the franchise name: Whofoplaba (short for Whole Food Plant Based). It would serve both take-out and dine-in.
    A super salad bar offering no less than 25 vegies would be the centerpiece (local and organic where possible). Of course it would include a range of nuts and seeds. In addition, a fruit salad bar would be a feature. Again, at least 25 choices could be made available.ย ย The menu would range from raw broccoli and cauliflower with a wide choice of hummus dip to cooked rice and beans, steamed vegetables, varieties of starches including baked potatoes, mashed sweet potatoes. To round out the menu selections choices can be made from the many vegan recipes created and already published. Finally customers could request customized personal plates based on their personal preference.
    ย A highlight of a WHOFOPLABA franchise would include a library where customers would have the opportunity to purchase many of the Whofoplaba books available.ย 
    McDonalds is successful because it bought the land upon which it built the structure. Thus it had absolute control of what was offered and how it was managed, else the franchisee would have to go. I am addressing this suggestion to the many Whofoplaba doctors and other professionals, some of whom are listed below.ย  T. Colin Campbell, PhD, Caldwell Esselstyn, MD, John A. McDougall, MD,ย Joel Fuhrman MD,ย Neal Barnard, MD, Brooke Goldner, MD, Michael Greger, MD, Michael Klaper, MD, Joel Kahn, M, Pamela A. Popper, PhD, ND, Garth Davis, MD, Alan Goldhamer, DC,Doug D, Lisle, PhD, Robert Ostfeld, MD, MS, Ellsworth Wareham, MD, Matthew Lederman, MD, Alona Pulde, MD, Dean Ornish MD, Ron Weiss MD, Robert Lustig MD, Kim Williams MD, Joanne Kjong MD, Anthony Lim MD, Brenda Dsavuas RS, Micelle McMacken MD, Tati Kvis MD, Benjamin Benulis MD, and so many more.ย 
    I am also asking the vegan community to offer your support as future customers. On March 1, 2019 I started my third year as a vegan. Two years ago I was obese, had diabetes and high blood pressure and consuming lots of drugs. After watching youtube videos of most of those listed above, I am no longer obese and do not have high blood pressure or diabetes. And I take no drugs. I am 78 years of age and now b elieve I will make it to 100.

  52. Samantha Perry says:

    I have been Plant-Based for almost a year. Difficulty part is trying to explain to people the advantages regarding their health. I always get the "The are meds for that…" excuse! The cruelty to animals has always been there and has always been "out of sight, out of mind" to the majority of the planets population. But the health benefits are HUGE!! If we could start just with that, the rest will make sense, that was my experience anyway. I wish I had tried this so many years ago when I was younger. But never too late!

  53. A Potato Traveling says:

    I have this idea to like hack every television channel in the world, the social medias the LED screens on the crossings just to air this.. coz every single soul just needs to watch this. ..

  54. Jay Pea says:

    It's hard to say something is 'healthier' only based on anecdotal evidence. If seeking truth based on science, see the studies that have compared longevity of vegans, vegetarians, and omnivores. In every study or meta-analysis I have seen, vegans/vegetarians do not live longer than omnivores on average. There is also approximately a 50% great risk of developing neurological disorders later in life. Granted, eating a lot of plant-based foods is healthy, but if it was truly healthy for our bodies (like drinking cow's milk is for calves), there would be clear evidence of longevity…and no issues with vitamin/mineral deficiencies like A, B12, and Iron. If an argument is based on 'feelings,' that is fine; but do not conflate facts with feelings.

  55. da ne says:

    I eat fish, fish are awesome. mindful food harvest

  56. Danny Glover says:

    Jesus Christ is the only Truth

  57. Rachele Pupilli says:

    Nice!!!! We'll done and very simple. I just want to point out that some of the Italian subtitles are wrong.

  58. Muriel LEBEAU says:

    It is time for a change!

  59. Megaman The Second says:

    wow this is really a high quality video seems the misleading of the public to plants is going well. bravo elites.. bravo

  60. Oliver Perez says:

    Please, please, please, do not mix lgtv, with this important information.

  61. Ramsรฉs Vรกsquez says:

    GEORGE WASHINGTON CARVER, the PEANUT man, famously said " if the earth does not give you more every season, (or each n every time iow), you yourself aren't being kind to it"…….that is for ALL THE PEOPLE OF PLANET EARTH @2019……….. :/ look around you, be selfaware.

  62. Vivian Frerichs says:

    Excellent work Sea Shepards!

  63. Vegan Vibes says:

    This is so Beautiful๐Ÿ’—๐Ÿ’—๐Ÿ’—. Thank you!โœŒ๐Ÿ’—๐ŸŒŽ๐Ÿถ๐Ÿบ๐Ÿฑ๐Ÿญ๐Ÿฐ๐Ÿฐ๐Ÿธ๐Ÿฏ๐Ÿจ๐Ÿซ๐Ÿท๐Ÿฝ๐Ÿฎ๐Ÿ—๐Ÿต๐Ÿ’๐Ÿด๐Ÿด๐Ÿ‘๐Ÿผ๐Ÿต๐Ÿค๐Ÿฅ๐Ÿฃ๐Ÿ”๐Ÿ๐Ÿข๐Ÿ›๐Ÿฑ๐Ÿณ๐Ÿ‹๐Ÿ„๐ŸŽ๐Ÿก๐Ÿ•๐Ÿ–๐Ÿ‚

  64. Alexander Castle says:

    not as good as others,, but thx loved the 29:04 part,, SPECIESIST WORDS (RACIST WORDS)

  65. Daniela Martins says:

    I know that's my time for a change.

  66. Lee-Ann O'Connor says:

    Impossible Foods? Didn't they test on rats?

  67. Sara Lopez says:

    I change to Spanish titles

  68. Sara Lopez says:

    I love beyond meat…

  69. Yolandambrosine says:

    I canโ€™t believe this is still happening, itโ€™s so evil and heartbreaking ๐Ÿ˜ญ. I am a proud vegan for life ๐ŸŒฑ๐Ÿ™๐Ÿฝโ™ฅ๏ธ

  70. ASMRyouVEGANyet? says:

    Can we stop with the emotional soundtracks? There's no need to add in this extra layer.
    If you're a logical person, this will draw out your emotions regardless of the music.

  71. Yvette Q. says:

    My heart cant take this shit

  72. raw vegan fruitarian says:


  73. Infinity Gamer says:

    i wont say that being vegan is wrong but let me teak a exampel for saving those whails you all times attack pepole who do the job not the pepole how told them to do it pepole lose their jobs.

  74. Nair Ferreira says:

    people today eat to much,by to much

  75. Shivani Shenoy RJ says:

    Literally it changed my mind… We have to spread this video having great message to as many people as we can๐Ÿ˜Š

  76. Phu Huynh says:

    Eating an animal and having oral intercourse is in effect necrobeastiality, i am your God!

  77. Seratonia says:

    The guy protecting the sea's is a true hero….Thank you

  78. WomanHiker One says:

    Where are the studies? Vegans never show direct studies. Sugar and carbs really are inflammatory. Keto diet is anti-inflammatory, and they run without hitting the "wall".

  79. WomanHiker One says:

    Dishonest to compare the carbon footprint of oil companies and the meat and dairy industries if…

    If you do this comparison and you Combine all of the meat and dairy industries.. you should also Combine all of the oil companies. You guys are so dishonest.

  80. Anaka Raelee says:

    Iโ€™m 13 years old and went vegetarian about 6 months ago in a fully meat eating family. I really want to go vegan but my mom wonโ€™t let me, Iโ€™m also trying to make more sustainable choices.

  81. Emma B says:

    This is an absolutely beautiful documentary and contains all the reasons why I went vegan and want to continue on that track. Thank you!!

  82. Julia Mustermann says:

    Sehr inspirierend und รผberzeugend๐Ÿ‘

  83. AKRAM A. A. AL-KHAZZAR says:

    very great movie

  84. Kate B says:

    Excellent! Thank you.

  85. Ampay Medina says:

    Beautiful documentary thank you

  86. jordan kozushka says:

    Amazing documentary! Proof positive for what all vegans already know….plant based food makes you better in every way!

  87. shailendra sengar says:

    Excellent job to aware people for go vegan . I has been vegan for 18 year old

  88. premabhakti. de says:

    The huge impact of the meat/diary on our environment is not discussed in the mass media when it comes to terms with so called climate change made by Co2.
    They come up with causes like cars, planes, houses and coal etc. but never questioning this evil industry, why?
    I don`t believe in man made climate change, but I do believe in a horrible future on earth if we don`t stop killing and exploiting animals just for the taste of the tongue and having no compassion for the earth and all its inhabitants.

  89. HAC says:

    Lets reverse the situation, tigers love to eat human's baby girls and forcing human to have more baby girls, then tigers will kill all baby boys because baby boys are useless.Tigers loves to wear human skin, then tigers tear out the skin from baby boys before they kill them.
    What do you think, human?

  90. alison townson says:

    For so many reasons including those shown in this and similar videos and movies i eat only a whole plant based foods and I am on a mission to educate my friends and family to do the same. I applaud these videos and the messages but I canโ€™t get my family to watch them because of the sentimental piano music that they all seem to play. The reality is stark and gut wrenching and we donโ€™t need the tinkering of a mushy piano theme over the top of what people are telling us. My friends and family just stop listening at the first hint of sentiment including frolicking lambs in an open field and just the hard truth would be the strongest message. The ahh so cute moments although lovely to those of us already converted just open us up to ridicule to those who love a good steak and canโ€™t live without bacon.

  91. BobMcHatchet says:

    stop your self-defeating behavior before anxiety, anger and depression ruin your life!

  92. DJ Ash says:

    That was Excellent

  93. johnnymazzerati says:

    I'm done with this shit. Done with it all. I was a vegan from 2001 to 2007 then went back to meat and animal products. Now it's 2019 and I eat meat and other animal products, I feel like shit, I got a fat belly, my skin looks like shit etc etc. But most importantly, I contribute to the deaths of all these animals.

    Everyday I see my dogs, I love them, they live with me indoors, they're my friends and yet I eat other animals that have their own lives and desire to live, just like my dogs do. Why have I not seen a problem with eating them if I won't eat dog meat? Truth is, I've wrestled with it since I went back to eating meat. I recall pulling a full chicken I had baked out of the oven to make sure it was cooked and as I saw the body of the chicken lying there cooked, I saw my dog waiting in anticipation for whatever scraps I might give her and I thought how terrible it is that I cook one animal and love another.

    This past week I went on what I call "90% vegetarian", meaning 90% of what I eat will be vegetarian. No more. No more animal products for me.

    Never mind what an animal based diet does to my body, it's more about what an animal based diet does to the animals body.

  94. TodaysRealHealth says:

    Itโ€™s July 2019 and humans worldwide are in serious trouble, we almost out of oxygen, NASA knows this, Vegan billionaires know this. They canโ€™t get the Mars One program fast enough off ground ( Earth)
    We are failing in getting this planet vegan, if we donโ€™t hurry, we may not see 2029. No joke.
    Info is out.

  95. TodaysRealHealth says:

    I love the guy at 19 minutes. YEAH Sea Shepard. You guys get my money. All the money I save since eating plant based is so cheap.

  96. intel inborn says:

    Vegan is Heroes

  97. German Munera says:

    Costa Rica located in Colombia? That accurate is your data?

  98. Qalb Saleem says:

    56 sec into this and they are comparing the trans Atlantic slave system to other systems of injustice in the country….NO!

  99. Trish Foye says:

    This needs to end! When is this going to stop??!! Vegan is the only way!

  100. Gregory B. Howard Edmonds says:

    This documentary I found both convincing as well as elegant in the way it was executed. I thank you for this because a righteous cause does not have to be weaponized, it can simply be explained clearly with humility and sincerity. I really enjoyed this approach to what I already was clear on. You guys are to be congratulated.

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